2 October 2008Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today called on the international community to show the same generosity in helping the world’s 31 landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) overcome their trade-hobbling isolation as it did last week when it pledged significant new funding to help poor States in general achieve development goals. “Today we are sounding alarm bells for the Almaty Programme of Action,” he told a High-level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly devoted to a mid-term review of the Programme, a 2003 plan setting out specific measures to compensate LLDCs for their geographical handicaps with improved market access and trade facilitation. Although LLDCs represent about 15 per cent of States, their share of world exports has remained well below 1 per cent, according to United Nations figures. Mr. Ban noted that the “alarm bells” he sounded last week at the Assembly’s High-Level Event on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the ambitious targets set by the UN Millennium Summit of 2000 to slash poverty, hunger, preventable illness and a host of other socio-economic ills, all by 2015, sparked an “unprecedented commitment” of as much as $16 billion.“I hope for a similarly hope-inspiring response,” he said. “Let us use the success of the High-Level Event on the MDGs as inspiration for this review.”It is vital that landlocked developing countries increase their volume of exports to meet the MDGs, yet the biggest obstacle to this is the very high cost of transport, in some cases exceeding 70 per cent of the export value, Mr. Ban told the opening session of the two-day meeting, calling for more vigorous international cooperation.Despite some encouraging progress since 2003 in improving transit transport policies, much more needs to be done in infrastructure development as roads and railways remain inadequate, and many ports use obsolete cargo handling equipment, he said. Integrated transport networks must be developed and customs operations modernized.Assembly President Miguel D’Escoto also said much more needed to be done to help the LLDCs. “Geographical realities coupled with critical infrastructure deficiencies, as well as cumbersome border crossing procedures, continue to pose daunting impediments to the external trade of landlocked developing countries,” he told the plenary.“Today, high trade transaction costs remain the single most important obstacle to the equitable and competitive access by landlocked countries to global markets.”Citing tangible progress, Cheick Sidi Diarra, the UN High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS), told a news conference that official development aid (ODA) to LLDCs grew from $10.1 billion in 2000 to $16.1 billion in 2006. Direct investment more than tripled over the past five years from $3.9 billion to $14 billion.Regional and sub-regional cooperation was also one of the success stories, he said, citing the inter-Asian highway and the strengthening of airports in Africa. The World Bank reported that in 2007, landlocked countries spent an average of 49 days for their exports to reach a seaport, down from 57 days in 2006. The time spent for importing decreased to 56 from 72.But, he added: “It is increasingly recognized that high transportation costs constitute a more important barrier than tariffs.”
Judge May’s death in his hometown of Oxford came four months after he resigned from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) for health reasons.The judge presided over the genocide trial of the former Yugoslav President Slobodan Miloševic for two years until his retirement.In New York a UN spokesman said Secretary-General Kofi Annan was saddened to learn of Judge May’s death. “Both through his work in the courtroom – most famously as presiding judge in the trial of Slobodan Miloševic – as well as through his work behind the scenes as Chair of the tribunal’s rules committee, Sir Richard played a major role in helping to ensure that the International Tribunal developed from a simple idea in a Security Council resolution into a fully functioning and effective criminal court,” Stephane Dujarric said in a statement.”Sir Richard leaves behind him a fond memory among all who knew him. But he has also left us something more: a gift of hope that those whose deeds offend the conscience of humankind may no more go unpunished and that, in the affairs of men and women of all nations, the rule of law may ultimately prevail,” the statement added.In the Hague where the court is based, ICTY President Judge Theodor Meron described Sir Richard as one of the Tribunal’s “shining lights” since he began work there in November 1997, citing his intellect, dedication, charm and humour.”Sir Richard was always careful to strike the necessary balance between expeditious and efficient trials and the requirements of fairness, notably leading the Miloševic case through a major part of the trial with the patience and creativity that the case requires,” he said.Judge Meron added that Judge May, by reforming the procedures and conduct of cases at the ICTY, had made a major contribution to the evolution of international criminal law.